A Protestant pastor remembers preaching a sermon on loving God and being interrupted by a congregant who blurted out, “Love God? Look at the problems God causes: devastating illness, hurricanes. earthquakes. And look at the problems God doesn’t prevent: wars, cruelty, persecution. Sure, this is stuff human beings bring about, but God just lets them happen. Love God you say?”
Jews don’t talk about loving God as much as Christians do, but it is our problem too, because the Sh’ma itself (Deuteronomy 6:5) commands us: “You shall love Adonai your God with all your heart, all your soul and all your might.”
How indeed can you love a God who allows such human suffering? I once worked with a woman who wore a T shirt saying “Life is a bitch and then you die.”
Traditional commentaries, like the Malbim, answer the objection by comparing God to a physician who causes a little pain now to avoid worse pain later – either in this life or the world to come.
But you have to believe in two things for that to work: a God who can and does reward the righteous; and an afterlife for the reward to happen. And nowadays, most people disbelieve both.
Yet these very same people may still wallow in the equally medieval notion of an all-powerful super-deity who ought to micro-manage our everyday affairs but doesn’t. If you still picture God that way, then you are stuck with the problem, and I don’t know any way around it except to remind you that almost 1000 years ago, Maimonides urged us to stop imaging God as a human being like ourselves, and adopt a more sophisticated idea of the divine.
But more sophisticated views of God come with more sophisticated questions – like the fact that love is an emotion, and you can’t command emotions the way you do behavior. That’s why Judaism deals in deeds. You can be expected to do what is right, whether you like it or not, but how can you be asked to dredge up love that just isn’t there?
S’fas emes provides the classical answer here: Love really is there, he says — hardwired deep inside us; we just have to work at finding it. His answer follows classic Hasidic cosmology of a universe where sparks of divine light are trying to escape the morass of darkness that infiltrated the universe at the moment of creation. Finding love of God within us is like releasing the light from its darkened jail cell.
Still, suspecting I have love buried deep within me is not the same as being able to find it, and then to identify with it enough to overcome the insistent feeling that “Life is a bitch and then you die.” You can command behavior; but not emotions.
So Torah commands behavior, but Torah is more than commandments alone; it is also stories and poetry and just plain deep-down wisdom from an age-old tradition. What makes little sense as a command may still be great advice. “You shall,” here, may mean, “You really ought to,” as in, “You really ought to love God, you know, because, otherwise, you end up wearing the ‘Life is a bitch’ T shirt, and that’s a terrible way to greet each day.”
Maimonides, on one hand, and Einstein, on the other, gave up on God as a puppet master pulling the strings of our everyday lives. God is not even a “someone” at all. God is the cause of all causes, the ultimate sustainer of the natural order, an integral part of the universe. To love God is to appreciate that universe: to admire its beautiful sunsets, find the good in others, and marvel at equations that describe the laws of nature.
A positive outlook cannot be commanded, but it is really good advice: and it comes with its own T shirt: “Someday we will die, but appreciating the world meanwhile is a gift worth living for.”
Thank you Rabbi Hoffman! This puppeteer who manages puppets would be honored to wear your tee shirt design appreciating the gifts we are given and blessed to receive.
a) the part about that first shirt being a terrible way to greet the day made me laugh (brightened up my morning considerably, and b) I would absolutely wear the alternative you suggested.
As an educator, I often try to answer students who ask that same question about God allowing bad things; the problem is, for someone younger than, say, a high school student, the idea of God NOT being the almighty, all-powerful Oz is tough to rationalize for them in light of what they’ve learned since they were young. And if we simply teach appreciation for what we have in the now, will that negate an appreciation for the God mentioned in all the prayers they learn?
Thank you for continuing to write. I’m looking forward to learning with you in Boston!
Rabbi, I agree with you completely about the need to move past a pediatric concept of God as basically having human values, but super-human abilities. “Judging” God, either in the short term (why’d you make that earthquake happen?) or in the longer term (OK, I accept lousy stuff in this life because I will be rewarded in the world to come) is meaningless because any sophisticated notion of the divine can’t assume that the human perspective is remotely capable of understanding the divine perspective. Human categories of judgment work for humans; not for God.
The other problem is that such a view is fundamentally transnational: I will love God if God does good things for me, either in the short term or the longer term.
Where I respectfully depart, Rabbi, is the idea that love is an emotion. That is one way of understanding it, of course, but “love” as used in Deut. 6:5 is not a noun describing an emotion; it s is a verb. The Torah is not commanding us to have an emotional state; it is commanding behavior. When we truly love another person, we love that person not because we think they never do wrong; we love them in their whole being, flaws and all. It is Buber’s I-Thou relationship. Deut 6:5 tells us to treat God with love, which means we don’t take a transactional view. We don’t say “how can we love God despite earthquakes?” We say “despite Your flaws, or what we may, in our poor human capacity, may perceive as Your flaws, our love for You is unconditional.”
Looked at this way, there are implications in how to understand, for example, the commandment to “love your neighbor as yourself” in Lev. 19:18.
It also makes one think about why Dec. 6:5 commands us to love God, but Ex. 20:12 only commands us to “honor” our parents. Perhaps the Torah understands something profound about the sometimes difficult relationship between children and parents.